A food system operates within and is influenced by social, political, economic and environmental contexts. In the pan-European study, women, older subjects and more educated subjects considered “health aspects” to be particularly important. Men more often selected “flavor” and “habit” as the main determinants of their food choice. Interventions aimed at these groups should take into account their perceived determinants of food choice.
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A thousand. Before sharing confidential information, make sure you're on a federal government site. Since the economic benefits of agriculture have generally been volatile and are below the current market rates of return on capital and labor (Cochrane, 199), economists and sociologists have been trying for a long time to understand the motivation of agricultural operators to persist in agriculture (Gardner, 2002; Reinhardt and Barlett, 198). Motivations for engaging in agriculture and remaining in it include the desire to maintain a family tradition, be your own boss, work outdoors and spend time with you and teach your children's work ethic (Barlett, 1993; Gasson and Errington, 1999).
Rural communities that are home to large populations of agricultural workers often struggle to meet the unique educational and social service needs of this group (Findeis et al. Farmworker cities in California's Central Valley have some of the lowest per capita incomes, the poorest public services, and the most stressful local fiscal conditions of all rural communities in the United States (Martin, 200). In addition to low wages, seasonal farmworkers and migrant workers rarely have access to important protections, such as workers' compensation (NCFH, 201). According to data collected by the advocacy group Farmworker Justice, only 13 states, plus the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, require employers to provide workers' compensation insurance or equivalent benefits to migrant and seasonal workers; this coverage is optional in 16 states (Farmworker Justice, 200).
This lack of coverage is important because when workers are sick or injured, they don't receive compensation; workers who miss work are also likely to lose their jobs. Most food system workers, including farm workers, don't have paid sick days or don't know if they have them and have worked when they are sick (FCWA, 201). Non-U.S. citizens cannot obtain insurance under the ACA and, because the food system employs so many undocumented immigrants, they will continue to be part of the uninsured population (NILC, 201.Immigrants who are legally in the United States can only receive limited federal health care coverage (NILC, 201.In this section, we highlight some of the differences in the social and economic outcomes of participants in each of the major post-agricultural subsectors in the US.
. These sectors are highly interdependent and changes in any of the sectors influence the performance of other sectors, as well as the price and availability of food. Competitive pressures within each sector (and between sectors) have been the main drivers of changes in technology and organizational structure (for example,. These, in turn, drive economic efficiency, opportunities and rewards for labor and food choices for consumers.
Given the global nature of many agricultural input companies, as well as the skills in chemistry and biological systems that are needed, the demand for workers with higher education levels to fill these positions seems likely to increase. This sector is comprised of first-line handlers who receive, package and store raw agricultural products for shipment to the next part of the food supply chain, and of food processors and manufacturers who convert ingredients into edible, packaged, storable and safe foods for final preparation and consumption by consumers or food service establishments (see chapter. Many companies that purchase agricultural products do so through contracts that guarantee the purchase of a certain quantity of product at a predetermined price, assuming that the raw materials meet the buyer's quality specifications. The advantage of this agreement is that it alleviates the farmer's risk of not finding a market and of not knowing what the price will be at the time of harvest.
It can also provide an opportunity to protect against price drops in the event of unforeseen market circumstances. Company contracts also provide technical advice and establish quality and safety standards that help ensure a uniform supply of products that will be accepted by the intermediate market. The demand by processors and retailers for consistent product size and quality plays an important role in the benefits of contract farming. An example is the livestock supply chain, in which vertical coordination has caused changes in trade relations.
In the poultry industry, producers are paid according to their productivity relative to other farmers and are much less certain about the price they will receive at the end of the season (Leonard, 201). The concentration of market shares in the hands of a few companies can also lead to a possible loss of competition and a decrease in market transparency. This sector of the food system provides the transportation and storage of food and agricultural products, among other sectors. Includes warehousing, road transport and other transportation and procurement services.
This sector is essential for the availability of food in remote areas and in cities far from the production site. On the food service side, traditional wholesalers continue to dominate because they serve many small retail businesses with specialty orders. The agricultural input sector also has wholesalers. Nine percent of the wholesale companies listed in the census data deliver agricultural supplies and another 9 percent sell raw agricultural products intended for processors (U.S.).
U.S., U.S. UU. Worker health and safety Retail jobs involve lifting heavy objects and using potentially hazardous equipment, putting workers at risk of back injuries and lacerations or amputations. In addition, psychosocial factors, such as work-related stress and shift work, are important considerations for these employees.
This sector includes individually owned restaurants, mid-price chains, quick-service establishments (fast food), hotels and beverage outlets. They adapt to the tastes of their individual customers and are often leaders in food innovation. Also in this sector are institutional food service establishments, such as schools, hospitals, prisons, food eaters (for charity) and Meals on Wheels. Structure of the sector The food service sector has at least 125,951 companies and approximately 4 million employees.
It employs an average of 32 people per establishment; the payroll represents more than 27 percent of its sales revenue (U.S. It is a labor-intensive business, especially since it is largely a service business with few opportunities to substitute capital for labor. The cost of food at most food service locations is no more than one-third of their total costs. Number of food and agriculture companies on the Fortune 500 list, ranking by total revenue and profitability.
In general, the biggest profits are found in the food manufacturing sector, mainly among large multinational companies and in the food service sector. The economic benefits for manufacturing companies and their investors are greater than in most other sectors, partly because this sector has a relatively high concentration due to mergers and acquisitions and global markets. In the foodservice sector, consumers pay for experiences and convenience, as well as for food; several of the chain's operations operate on a global scale. Retail food stores traditionally strive for profitability, mainly due to fierce horizontal competition.
Many stores close because consumers are looking for the lowest prices for consistent products or shopping experiences and unique products in luxury stores. The bifurcation of retailers has occurred since the 1990s, with large stores on the one hand and unique food offerings, such as organic and entirely private labels, on the other. Retailers trying to supply intermediate grocery stores are disappearing. Traditionally, sales profits in grocery stores are reported at 2 percent, meaning they operate with very small margins (IMF, 201).
Perhaps the main indicator of the social and economic success of any food system is the ability to provide the population with an abundant supply of affordable, safe, high-quality and nutritious food. This review suggests that the U.S. The food system meets these goals most of the time for most people, but major diet-related diseases (see chapter) and food insecurity point to areas that need to be improved. Researchers have understood for decades that all decisions made regarding food, shopping, and consumption depend on multiple variables.
These include the communities in which people live; the food available in those communities; the influences they are exposed to, such as advertising and marketing; and their beliefs about the environment, agriculture, globalization, and many other factors. The food system is dynamic and changes in dietary habits and cultural and environmental provisions among the U.S. Consumers in recent decades report a change in their preferences. This change will need to be evaluated in the coming decades.
Older, higher-income consumers and men are less likely to be influenced by prices than young people, low-income consumers and women (IFIC, 201). Just and Payne (200) argue that most consumers generally do not respond very well to changes in prices and incomes, but that they tend to respond better to changes (especially to the decline) in the price of foods high in fat, salt and sugar. Lowenstein (201) reports that, between 1980 and 2000, the relative price of food fell by almost 15 percent, and the prices of processed foods fell the most. He states that several economic reports attribute most of the increase in obesity during that time to the increase in calorie intake as a result of the change in prices (Lowenstein, 201).
However, few consumers understand health problems more than on a superficial level (Just, 201), and they can choose many products that do not improve health. Manufacturers and sellers study and analyze consumer behavior models, including deliberate and slow purchases, versus those who are emotional and heuristic (Shiv and Fedorikhin, 199). Manufacturers understand that consumers respond to a variety of factors, such as the price, the price of substitutes and supplements, the number of calories, the size of a serving, the shape and color of the packaging, the location of the products and others, and can make changes in their marketing approaches if they want to do so (Just, 201.Satisfying the desire for ubiquitous convenience has also led to the rise of fast food establishments and the presence Food store for sale in all types of stores and public places. In addition, a busy life causes consumers to increasingly combine eating with other activities, such as working, driving, watching television and interacting with the Internet, e-mail or telephone (Kinsey, 201), increasing the desire for foods that are comfortable and easy to eat.
These behaviors appear to have contributed to the problem of obesity in the United States (Harvard School of Public Health, 2013). Consumer concern for sustainability has helped major companies in the food supply chain to demand more corporate social responsibility. The decision of retail companies to require their suppliers to certify the use of sustainable business and productive practices has become one of the main drivers of change in the modern United States,. As shown in this chapter, any configuration of the food system will generate positive and negative social and economic effects, and the selection of any of them will invariably result in several compensations that must be compared.
Comparison of alternative configurations of the EU, S. The food system is complicated by the fact that, for any configuration, different populations and industrial sectors can be affected in different ways, both positively and negatively. For example, improvements in the efficiency of the system, which have reduced costs for industry and food prices for consumers, have had negative consequences, such as the loss of jobs and the low wages of workers in the food industry. Therefore, these complexities have implications for the methodological approaches used to estimate effects, since it is difficult to separate multiple influences and determine the effects of combined exposures.
In this section, we highlight some representative examples of the distributions of costs and benefits that occur within the social and economic dimensions, as well as of the interactions that occur between this and the dimensions of health and environment. Another indicator of global food security is food safety and quality. Compared to the poorest countries, improvements in the diversity and security of food supply in the developed world have resulted in a great improvement in the adequacy of diets. A recent article warned that the increasing similarity of diets around the world is a threat to health and food security, as many countries, especially the least developed ones, are abandoning traditional crops in favor of a smaller diversity of crop species (Khoury et al.
The impacts of structural changes on the size and organization of companies in the food supply chain are not experienced equally everywhere. In general, rural areas are disadvantaged and have relatively difficulty adapting to economic changes associated with the integration, consolidation and globalization of industry. This is because their economies are less diversified, lack the benefits of agglomerating urban areas, and offer fewer options to individual employees or business owners who are displaced by competitive forces. Rural services are more expensive, and it is rare that more than one major grocery retail chain can survive in a single area, resulting in lower levels of competition, less diverse offerings and higher prices for many food products.
Different regions have also fared better or worse during recent periods of change. Areas with good soils, favorable weather conditions and well-developed agro-industrial infrastructure have experienced a more rapid consolidation of agriculture and the concentration of high-value production systems. Those who are closer to urban markets have been able to better take advantage of the growth in local and regional food marketing opportunities. Trends that benefit certain commodities will benefit regions that specialize or have competitive advantages in the production of those commodities.
For example, the rapid increase in the corn ethanol market in the 2000s could generate significant profits for corn producing areas, but also increase production costs and reduce profitability in livestock production regions that had used corn as an important source of food. There are many advantages and disadvantages between environmental outcomes and the level of cost-effectiveness or efficiency throughout the food supply chain. By providing an abundant supply of low-cost food, the United States,. The food system also has significant impacts on the environment.
Rather, efforts to address environmental problems associated with agricultural production are likely to increase costs for consumers and reduce production efficiency. However, not all advances in environmental performance come at the expense of efficiency. For example, using nutrient inputs more efficiently (p. e.g.,.
The use of “precision agriculture” techniques can save producers some variable input costs and potentially reduce environmental damage, although adoption rates have been slower than expected (Schimmelpfennig and Ebel, 201). Since agriculture is the dominant land use in most regions of the United States, the quality of life of rural residents can be affected by changes in production practices and cropping patterns. Characteristics of high-performance and high-efficiency production systems (p. e.g.
An environmental problem that affects both producers and consumers is the decline in the quantity and quality of water. Changes in water associated with agricultural production and food manufacturing have a direct impact on the cost and quality of water available to residents of small towns and cities (see also chapter 3, on interactions between social, economic and health effects), and chapter 7, annex 4, for a detailed description of the advantages and disadvantages between crop productivity and environmental and health effects with different approaches to nitrogen management). Health, income and SES are interrelated in multiple ways. On average, people with higher incomes live longer and are healthier than people with lower incomes (Deaton and Paxson, 200).
This is partly because they spend more on security (p. Healthier people can also earn more because they lose fewer days of work due to disability or illness and may have lower medical expenses, but this effect cannot explain the strength of the relationship between income and health (Smith, 199), nor can it explain the better health of children born to parents with higher incomes (Case et al. SES is related to health even after controlling income (Marmot, 200). One of the reasons may be the adverse health effects of stress related to a lack of control over daily activities (p.
Some of the associations between health and income and SES may also be related to education, as research shows that better-educated people have better-paying and safer jobs, a lower risk of chronic diseases, positive health behaviors, and longer lives than people with less education (RWJF, 201). To carry out an evaluation of the social and economic effects of alternative configurations of the food system and to propose interventions (see examples of interventions in box 5), it is necessary to identify the key metrics that indicate social and economic effects. The broad categories described in box 5-2 are well-documented examples of these metrics. Examples of interventions with social or economic effects.
Employment and training program of the Agricultural Act (Farm Act) 2001, which reallocates farm bill spending to emphasize rural community development over subsidies to agricultural operations. Status (more). Gross production (gross domestic product) Factor productivity The USDA collects a wide range of data on food and agriculture, including prices, costs, inputs, production levels, income, food availability and environmental effects, and is made available to the public by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service. Consumer spending on food is available in the Office of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual surveys.
A food price database is available at the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Information on food producers is available in USDA surveys and agricultural census data. The Agricultural Resource Management Survey tracks agricultural practices, including the use of chemical and mechanical inputs that affect agricultural productivity and environmental outcomes. Other federal agencies, such as the BLS and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, collect data on occupational safety and health for workers in the food sector, although the data is usually at the industrial level and not always by occupation.
Appendix B includes information on where to find some of these key databases, as well as metrics to measure these effects. In addition to traditional studies on consumer demand and consumption, some researchers have conducted studies that use the theory of domestic economics, which incorporates the “value of time” into the analysis (Andorka, 1987; Becker, 1965; Deaton and Paxson, 1998; Juster and Smith, 1997; Kinsey, 1983; Whitaker, 200. This line of analysis, initiated by Gary Becker, has also been used to study food consumption, since the amount of time needed to obtain food is relevant to household food choices. The data used to analyze these models is almost always survey data on individual or family choice and behavior.
One of the problems when analyzing food demand and food choice is the lack of data needed to answer many of today's questions. For example, to determine the correlations of obesity, it is desirable to have detailed data on individual food consumption, food prices and household characteristics, as well as on health habits and diseases. Rarely does all of this data about individuals appear in a data set. The lack of secondary data is partly responsible for the growth of the experimental economy, in which researchers collect primary data using techniques such as auction games.
5 There is also a lack of data to capture the effects of alternative food systems. Since research in this area has been limited, metrics related to social and economic effects with regard to consumption patterns, workers, and production are also lacking. These data gaps can hinder the ability to measure social and economic effects when discussing proposals for alternative food systems. Many valuable and widely used national datasets are being eliminated or modified, or are at risk of being eliminated, due to funding limitations.
Although the full description of these databases and the scope of the cuts is beyond the scope of this section, the length of several databases that include important indicators for evaluating agricultural and food systems is being reduced, the sampling methodology is being modified or the time between data collection is being increased, all as part of cost-saving measures. Several reasons support the maintenance of these databases, including the enormous benefits of surveillance. Surveillance data makes it possible to monitor trends over time, determine changes in risks and outcomes to inform the establishment of priorities, develop specific policies and programs, and evaluate interventions. Efforts to increase funding to maintain these important national data systems should emphasize the value and necessity of data for evidence-based decision-making.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public Law 111-148, 111st Cong. The consumer price index is the measure of the average change over time in the prices that urban consumers pay for a market basket of consumer goods and services. For example, the affordability of food is measured by the consumption of food as a percentage of total household spending, the proportion of the population living below the poverty line, GDP per capita, import tariffs on agricultural products, the presence of food safety net programs, and farmers' access to finance. Auction games are situations in which actors independently bid for a product that is sold to the highest bidder.
In the most recent survey, in response to a question about what factors have a significant or significant impact on the decision to buy food and beverages, the first option is flavor (90 percent choose this). Prices change in response to supply and demand, especially in response to changes in policies, new technologies and the structure of the food industry. Helping local farmers to grow food for human consumption, ensure fair prices in supply chains and adopt innovation can bring the global food system closer to solving the malnutrition and environmental degradation that, unfortunately, continue to define food production today. The United States Department of Agriculture oversees this system by certifying food producers and handlers that they meet organic standards.
Food processors and manufacturers are constantly adapting to sales feedback and retailers' orders. Psychological stress is a common feature of modern life and can modify behaviors that affect health, such as physical activity, smoking or food choices. Organic processors must understand the organic state of each ingredient they use, whether they are creating food for human consumption or for animal feed; only products made with a certain threshold of organic ingredients can obtain the organic label. The wholesale food industry buys processed value-added products from domestic and international producers and stores them in warehouses until they are ready to be delivered to food companies and supermarket shelves.
This subsector includes traditional grocery stores and, increasingly, large retailers that sell food as part of a wide range of general products. .
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